Publications

La diáspora del románico hispano: De la protección al expolio

€ 22.00
Author: VV.AA
ISBN: 978-84-15072-65-2
Year: 2013
dimensions (mm.): 240x170
Weight (Kg.): 0.71
Number of pages: 242
Languaje: es
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Labels: Románico
Publications
Durante las primeras décadas del siglo XX el patrimonio artístico español acaparó la atención del mercado de antigüedades y fueron muchas las obras de arte que mudaron de lugar, abandonando sus ancestrales emplazamientos para emprender un viaje sin retorno con destino a museos públicos y colecciones privadas. Una parte importante de ese patrimonio correspondió a destacados monumentos del románico hispano que fueron parcialmente desmembrados o despojados de sus más apreciables joyas, en unas ocasiones como medida de salvaguarda y en otras como producto de operaciones clandestinas ligadas a fuertes intereses económicos. En este saco sin fondo se incluyeron piezas de todo tipo, desde tallas de imaginería, capiteles, objetos suntuarios o códices, hasta pinturas murales y estructuras arquitectónicas, que fueron desmontadas piedra a piedra y trasladadas a otro lugar, a veces fuera de España. En estas actas se tratará sobre el destino de algunas de estas obras, las causas que favorecieron este proceso y los protagonistas que intervinieron en la trama: acaudalados coleccionistas, anticuarios sin escrúpulos, reputados “amantes” de lo hispano y miembros del clero.
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Presentación

Durante las primeras décadas de la pasada centuria el arte español acaparó la atención del mercado de antigüedades y fueron muchas las obras que mudaron de lugar, abandonando sus ancestrales emplazamientos para emprender un viaje sin retorno con destino a museos públicos y colecciones privadas. Una parte importante de ese patrimonio correspondió a destacados monumentos del románico hispano que fueron parcialmente desmembrados o despojados de sus más apreciables joyas, en unas ocasiones como medida de salvaguarda y en otras como producto de operaciones clandestinas ligadas a fuertes intereses económicos. En este saco sin fondo se incluyeron piezas de todo tipo, desde tallas de imaginería, capiteles, objetos suntuarios o códices, hasta pinturas murales y estructuras arquitectónicas que fueron desmontadas piedra a piedra y trasladadas a otro lugar, a veces fuera de España.

En muchos casos se trataba de monumentos que sufrieron en su solar de origen la ignorancia de sus vecinos, el olvido de las autoridades y la codicia de unos marchantes que no dudaron en expoliar esta riqueza artística sirviéndose de toda clase de engaños y patrañas. Aunque la desidia y el abandono fueron los principales aliados con el que se encontraron estos expoliadores, no es menos cierto que hubo también voces académicas que alzaron su voz en contra de semejante latrocinio.

Un buen número de estas obras fue a parar a Estados Unidos, primero a manos de los grandes magnates del momento, como W. R. Hearst, J. D. Rockefeller o J. Pierpont Morgan, que vieron en España un lugar de fácil aprovisionamiento para sus colecciones, y más tarde a los fondos de importantes museos de aquel país, como el Metropolitan de Nueva York y su sección de Los Claustros.

Otra parte importante de estas preseas recaló en los museos españoles, a veces como salvaguarda ante su inminente expatriación, como ocurrió con algunas pinturas murales del Pirineo, y en otras ocasiones debido al estado de ruina en el que se encontraba el monumento que las acogía. Un papel destacado en el acopio de este material lo constituyeron las comisiones científicas que desde finales del siglo xix recorrieron el territorio español en busca de piezas con las que surtir a los museos estatales, sobre todo al Museo Arqueológico Nacional, creado en 1867.

En los seis estudios que componen esta publicación se analiza el destino de algunas de estas obras, las causas que propiciaron su enajenación y los protagonistas que intervinieron en la trama. A lo largo de sus páginas nos toparemos con acaudalados coleccionistas, agentes sin escrúpulos que se aprovecharon de la ignorancia de las gentes, voraces anticuarios dispuestos a vender las piezas al mejor postor, reputados “amantes” de lo hispano que no dudaron en contribuir al expolio de nuestro patrimonio y miembros de la jerarquía eclesiástica que vendieron parte de sus bienes con la disculpa de recaudar dinero para acometer obras de mantenimiento en los edificios que casi nunca se llegaron a realizar. En todo este contexto se incluye también el análisis de experiencias más optimistas ligadas a la conservación del patrimonio, aunque ello supusiera la desvinculación de la obra respecto al monumento para el que se creó.

 

Índice

MARÍA JOSÉ MARTÍNEZ RUIZ: La venta y expolio del patrimonio románico de Castilla y León: el caso de las pinturas murales.


JOSÉ A. FERNÁNDEZ FLÓREZ: Los otros hijos de la diáspora: Beatos y códices de Castilla y León en el exilio.


JOSÉ MIGUEL MERINO DE CÁCERES: El coleccionismo americano y la expatriación del románico hispano: portadas claustros y ábsides.


ÁNGELA FRANCO MATA:  El Museo Arqueológico Nacional y la colección de arte románico.


GERARDO BOTO VARELA: La presencia del arte románico en las colecciones privadas de Cataluña: de Josep Puiggarí a Hans Engelhorn.


MONTSERRAT PAGÈS PARETAS: Misión en el Pirineo: descubrimiento, arranque y traslado de los murales románicos al MNAC.

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